At the Threshold Between Governance and Management: Community-Based Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa


Emery Roe, Louise Fortmann, Michel Van Eeten


community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), systems based policy approach


Public Administration and Development

Year Published:


Policy Summary

This article uses a threshold-based management framework to analyze and make policy recommendations for community-based natural resource management (CBNRM). The interconnectedness of population, resources, and the environment has to be reflected in policy. Policy is not effective unless the couplings can be operationalized in a dynamic process between different goals and issues and by the people in the field at every stage of the policy’s development, execution, redesign and ongoing management. CBNRM is a case-by-case management system with a complex structure that will rarely look straightforward in the sense of good policies leading directly to good outcomes.

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