Soil Health Resources

Soil Health and Carbon Sequestration in US Croplands: A Policy Analysis

May 2016
Léopold Biardeau, Rebecca Crebbin-Coates, Ritt Keerati, Sara Litke, and Hortencia Rodríguez

Increasing attention is being paid to the emissions reduction and carbon capture (sequestration) possibilities in soils. While government incentives have long existed to ensure that soils are protected to ensure agricultural productivity and air and water quality, new attention to climate change demands policy solutions that reflect the increased importance — and potential — of soil health.

A Goldman School of Public Policy Independent Policy Analysis team worked with Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the Berkeley Food Institute in spring 2016 to identify current challenges and opportunities in cropland soil health, with a particular focus on soil carbon sequestration. Policy options to increase uptake of NRCS soil health programs in California and Iowa were analyzed, including: adapting existing NRCS technical and financial assistance programs; promoting end-market demand for crops grown through sustainable practices; increasing public-private partnerships; allowing farmers to participate in cap-and-trade; and positioning NRCS as a carbon broker for farmers. Recommendations reflect geographic diversity, crop diversity, and current challenges to soil and farmer economic security, as well as political feasibility. Final results were shared with NRCS state and national staff. Download the executive summary here and the full report here.

Factors Influencing Farmer Adoption of Soil Health Practices in the United States: A Narrative Review

February 2016
Liz Carlisle

Soil health practices – such as cover cropping, crop rotation, and conservation tillage – provide synergistic environmental and economic benefits, both on and beyond the farms that utilize them. Given these benefits, researchers are puzzled by the persistent adoption gap for these practices. This narrative review synthesizes the insights of the soil health practices adoption literature, with a focus on US commodity agriculture. While farms, farmers, and farm communities are too heterogeneous to represent with a single model, this review finds five emergent themes: (1) differences in perspective along the adoption continuum, (2) interaction among soil health practices, (3) qualitatively different pathways to incremental and transformative change, (4) non-economic farmer motives, and (5) the key role of larger farm and food system context. This study finds rational actor models inadequate to explain farmer decision-making, suggesting that researchers would do well to utilize interpretive frames that elucidate interactions among groups of people and take account of multiple forms of capital. Reviewing recommendations for increasing the adoption of soil health practices, this study finds that a complementary approach—combining education, research, policy, measures to overcome equipment barriers, and efforts to address farm and food system context—holds the most promise. Download the full report here.